Transport system in the State is crucial for overall development. The various modes of transport are through Road, Rail and Air. Livelihood and education are the prime purposes for travel. The mode of transportation varies according to the necessity. The necessity introduces the idea of ownership and thus the vehicle manufacture, thereby fuelling the need for Fuel requirement and thus the emissions from the vehicles which leads to Environmental Pollution. Transportation sector contributes 6.5 % share in Gross State Value Added (GSVA) at current prices in 2016-17 to the Telangana economy.
The productivity and efficiency of Road transport is directly linked with the availability and quality of road network. Total Network constitute 97,019.33 kms., of road length in which 2,365.93 kms., cement concrete; 46,174.11 kms., Black-Top; 14,758.23 kms., metalled; and 33,721.66 kms., Un-metalled pertaining to National Highways, Roads & Buildings and Panchayat Raj departments respectively. There are 80 lakhs of Motor vehicles in different categories in Telangana State. The vehicular population is increasing day by day and smoke emission from Automobile is causing pollution and also becoming hazardous to health.
Indian Railways have a history and rich heritage spanning over 150 years. Indian Railways is a State owned public utility of Government of India under the Ministry of Railways. As a national common carrier transporting passenger and goods over vast network of 65,808 kms route lengths and it has been playing a key role in country's as well as State's social and economic development. It is comparatively cheap and affordable means of transportation for lakhs of passengers. As a carrier of bulk freight, namely ores and minerals, iron and steel, Cement, mineral oils, food grains, fertilizers etc and the importance of Indian Railways for development of Agriculture, Industry and for the benefit of common public is well recognized. As on 31.03.2015, the Indian railways are rendering its services by establishing 229 railway stations with a route kilometer age of 1676 in the State.
The state of Telangana has only one commercial passenger airport which essentially serves inter-state travel. The Rajiv Gandhi International Airport (RGIA) is strategically located in the centre of India. Rajiv Gandhi International Airport under the governance of Airport Authority of India is the only one airport in state of with connections to domestic and international destinations. The Capacity of the airport is over 40 MPPA. Currently the airport serves about 12 million passengers per year .The modular integrated Cargo facility is spread over 14, 330 sq.mt, and has the capacity to handle 150000 MT per annum. The airport has a fuel farm consisting of three storage tanks, with a total capacity for 13,500 kilolitres (480,000 cu ft.) of. The tanks are connected to the apron via underground pipelines. The new airport is quite far from the city and with very poor connectivity by public transport, forcing most people to travel by taxi for distances over 30 km, thus leading to heavy emissions within the city of Hyderabad.
EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON TRANSPORTATION IN TELANGANA
• Growth of cities and large scale rural-urban migration has increased the population and density, thus vehicles density
• The share of public transport is low in State, far below the global best practices
• Road congestion resulting in poor fuel economy
• Penetration of alternate fuel usage is negligible in transport sector
• Lack of organized efforts to promote fuel efficiency improvement and eco-driving habits for 'vehicles in use' among drivers or owners of the vehicles (private or governmental)
• Enhance the share of public transport in the total transportation mix
• Enhance the share of low emission/fuel-efficient vehicles and vehicles that run on alternate fuels
• Encourage non-motorized transport like walking and cycling
• Design or redesign road networks so as to facilitate smooth traffic movement
• Interlink private and public transport modes so as to minimize the use of private transport
Source: TSAPCC- http://www.moef.gov.in/sites/default/files/Telangana.pdf
INITIATIVES BY TELANGANA GOVERNMENT
MMTS: Multi Modal Transport System: It is a suburban rail system with the augmented capacity of existing railway lines covering 43km. It covers 27 stations. A few years ago, the numbers of services have been increased from 87 to 92 and some of the peak time service capacity is augmented by converting 6 car rake into 9 car rakes due to which, the number of passengers travelled by MMTS services has increased from 52000 to 1, 30,000 every day. To encourage commuters to shift from Road to rail, the approaches to the MMTS stations for the convenience of the pedestrians, footpaths, Zebra crossing and Pelican signals, Street lightings are being developed.
Metro Rail Project: The Metro rail Project proposed is under progress and is anticipated to be most efficient in terms of energy consumption, space occupancy and numbers transported. The reasons High-capacity carriers very high volumes of peak hour peak direction trips, Eco-friendly causes no air pollution, much less sound pollution, Low energy consumption 20% per passenger km in comparison to road- based systems, Greater traffic capacity carries as much traffic as 24 lanes of car traffic (two directions), Very low ground space occupation - 2 meter width only for elevated rail, Faster - reduces journey time by 50%.
Source: Telangana Industries & Infrastructure Corporation (TSIIC) http://tsiic.telangana.gov.in/climate-change-adaptation-in-industrial-areas/
2) Statistical year book of Telangana-2016 - http://www.telangana.gov.in/PDFDocuments/Statistical-Year-Book-2016.pdf
3) Sate Environment Report-2015- - http://www.eptri.com/state-of-environment-report-telangana-2015